Crowdfunding also doesn't work, since it again doesn't cover all the costs. Also, if the crowdfunded product would be slated to be released freely after production, the consumers would be put in a prisoner's dilemma
. If one crowdfunds, and the other crowdfunds, you both lose money and receive a product. If one crowdfunds, and the other doesn't, they receive the product free of charge and you lose money. If you don't crowdfund and they crowdfund, you receive the product free of charge and they lose money. If you both don't crowdfund, nobody gets the product and nobody loses money. So you will choose not to crowdfund every time, because there is a chance that you will get the content for free anyway, and you won't lose anything, while if you do crowdfund, you will surely lose money.